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all-organic liquid polymers are highly effective in oil
recovery and produce water quality suitable for reuse from
waste and slop oil, coolant, coking, oil field, utility,
mining, petroleum and refining applications. Tramfloc all-organic
liquid polymers effectively precipitate heavy metals, improve
supernatant quality, increase solids recovery, produce a
denser rag layer and a clean, high quality oil phase in
demulsification applications, and also reduce sludge production.
all-organic polymers are non-hazardous and biodegradable.
They are completely miscible in water and meet environmental
regulations. Tramfloc polymers will meet your plant's requirements
for suspended matter, emulsified oils, metal cutting fluids,
water soluble coolants, hydrocarbon oils, and supernatant
all-organic liquid polymers are aqueous blends of surfactants
and copolymers especially designed to assist in the reversing
of the emulsification process. Ammonium, acrylamide and
other non-hazardous all-organic components are used to manufacture
plants apply Tramfloc All-Organic Liquid Polymers, TAOLP,
the operations usually become more efficient and costs are
reduced while profits are increased. Call Tramfloc, Inc.
to explore better ways to deal with entrained and emulsified
Breaking in DAF and API Equipped Systems
custom designed polymers for oily waste treatment
in water waste streams can coat and damage equipment, contaminate
process water and escape treatment in biological systems.
Treatment of oily waste streams can result in:
of downstream facilities
wastewater is classified by the form of the oil/water mixtures,
i.e., free liquid (nonemulsified) or emulsion.
liquids are commonly separated by gravity. In most situations
the oil is lighter than water and can be separated by physical
operations such as skimming or flotation. The principles
governing gravity separation of oil are expressed by Stoke's
= oil droplet rise rate
g = acceleration due to gravity
dw = water density
do = oil density
D = oil droplet diameter
u = water viscosity
defined by Stoke's Law, the rise rate of the oil droplet
can be varied by changing the oil density, water viscosity,
water density or the oil droplet size. Temperature controls
the first three variables, while the addition of chemical
coagulants will alter the last variable, oil droplet size.
are stable mixtures of two immiscible liquids. Emulsions
are stabilized by an emulsifying agent which is a film of
surface active agents that reduces the interfacial tension
between the oil and water. The film of emulsifiers can be
altered by heat, chemicals, mechanical devices or a combination
of the three.
are used to destabilize oily wastewaters on many types of
equipment, such as: the American Petroleum Institute (API)
separator, Corrugated Plate Interceptor (CPI) separator,
Induced Air Flotation (IAF) and Dissolved Air Flotation
(DAF). Figure 1 is a schematic of a DAF. A flow schematic
of a typical refinery waste treatment system is shown in
has developed a bench scale test to simulate the operation
of a dissolved air flotation system. This test is particularly
useful in determining operating parameters such as pressure
requirements, recirculation ratios, chemical requirements
and rise rate estimations.
emulsions are treated either on a batch basis or as a continuous
process. The treatment process employs chemical addition,
pH adjustment and heat to destabilize the emulsified oils.
Tramfloc has developed a laboratory procedure to test the
effectiveness of Tramfloc cooking chemicals in breaking
oil emulsions. Tramfloc personnel can then determine the
required dosage of polymer by a full scale trial.
Series products are ideal for treatment of either free or
emulsified oils. These products are surface active polymeric
liquids of very high charge density which alter the oil
droplet size. In combination with a cooking operation, Tram-Oil
products are particularly effective in destabilizing emulsified
oils (synthetic, waste cutting, rolling, hydraulic and other
soluble oils) in water.
advantages of Tram-Oil Series products include:
of smaller sludge volume than inorganic coagulant products
of sludge handling and hauling costs
water clarity and recycling of acid water
oil recovery and better quality oil for reuse
Series products are more tolerant of pH variations than
Tramfloc approach to successful treatment of free and emulsified
oils employs proven product technology. Tramfloc products
are recommended on the basis of detailed system surveys,
laboratory and full-scale testing, computer simulations
and analyses. The Tramfloc approach is designed to provide
the best treatment for oily waste streams.
Innovative Products for the Global Petroleum Industry
AND SLOP OIL TREATMENT
Inc. manufactures a wide variety of demulsification products,
Tram-OilTM having application in the treatment of waste
and slop oils. Each compound marketed for the application
has been field proven prior to commercialization. This paper
contains information on the treatment of typical waste oils
and a set of typical formulations suitable for this application.
As with all demulsification applications, performance is
strongly influenced by the composition of the emulsion and
any contaminants present, as well as its previous treatment
history. For this reason, it is strongly recommended that
operators conduct their own bottle testing prior to field
applications. WASTE OIL (also referred to as
slop oil, pit oil or reclaim oil) accumulates as a by-product
of the oil production and refining processes.
are usually generated when an upset or accident occurs;
hence their production is rarely planned or convenient.
Waste oils are usually very tightly emulsified and frequently
contain a variety of external contaminants. Some of the
more common contaminants are such items as formation fines,
dirt, clay, drilling mud solids, scale solids and iron compounds,
usually corrosion by-products. Paraffin in the form of wax,
and asphaltenes may also be present. The aqueous portion
of the emulsion usually consists of oilfield brine waters,
though spent acid, caustic, polymers or fractionating fluids
are not uncommon. A free water phase may also present. In
many cases, the waste oil may contain chemicals of various
natures, in either the hydrocarbon or the aqueous phases.
often are present as a result of previous attempts to resolve
the waste oil emulsion. When an upset occurs at a production
facility, it is common for an attempt to be made to resolve
the waste oil by sending it through the production system
again. This may be done more than once. This can lead to
a condition where the lighter, short chain carbon fractions
have been driven off by repeated heating. It is common to
do this in conjunction with the injection of additional
demulsification chemical.?br> If this process is unsuccessful,
the waste oil takes on a dark, "sludgy" appearance, often
with the presence of darker specs distributed through out.
Waste oils in this condition are termed over-treated or
"burnt". The oil takes on the properties of a semi-combusted
oil, and an additional contaminant is added, residual carbon
from the over-treatment process. Waste oil treatment is
often very involved, so it is common for operators to let
waste oils accumulate until they can be resolved at one
time. Since waste oils are generally stored until the volume
is sufficient for economical treatment, the resulting waste
oil is usually a composite from several sources.
conditions (pit versus vessel) and time of storage may complicate
the treatment process. As a result of its' origin, handling
and composition, treatment of waste oil requires that it
be treated as a unique problem. A solution to one waste
oil emulsion may not be applicable to another, although
the techniques of separation may be similar. Treatment of
waste oil generally follows standard oilfield philosophy,
in that the ideal solution consists of recoverable oil suitable
for sale, and water and TSS components subject to further
treatment modalities. Bottle testing with an effective Tramfloc
Emulsion Breaker will maximize the amount of recovered oil.
Successful treatment of waste oil is dependent on proper
utilization of the following techniques and conditions.
2. Chemical Application
4. Retention or Quiescent Time
is usually required to resolve water oil emulsions.
Typical treatment temperatures range from 45 degrees
F to 185 degrees F. Exceptions both higher and lower
exist, and some oils may be treated at ambient temperatures.
Chemical application consists of three major areas:
demuslification and pH adjustment. Demulsifer formulations
are utilized to chemically separate, or aid in the separation
of the two phases comprising the emulsified waste oil.
formulations are designed to resolve the emulsion without
over-treatment characteristics. Typical treatment rates
range from 500 PPM to 5000 PPM. Treatment ranges vary widely,
depending upon paraffin wax volume and composition, as well
as the API gravity of the waste oil. The adjustment of pH
may be done with caustic or acid. This adjustment may be
critical to resolving the waste oil emulsion. Typically,
the pH is adjusted in small increments or to a relatively
neutral state by addition of the appropriate amounts of
acid or base. Application rates are typically 250 PPM to
1500 PPM or .25 to 1.0 pounds per barrel. In addition to
these types of chemical treatments, surfactants are sometimes
required for resolution of solids, viscous oil-water interfaces
is usually essential to disperse the chemical treatment
and to obtain uniform heating. A number of methods exist
to provide agitation. Generally speaking, use of transfer
pumps is not recommended as the shear affect may stabilize
or re-emulsify the waste oil. Retention time allows time
for the treatment process to work. A minimum period of 8
to 24 hours is recommended. Times in excess of this minimum
are common. With many waste oils, the addition of water
as a wash may expedite the treatment process. This wash
application can aid in solids removal and if relatively
fresh water is entrained in the waste oil, aid in the water
drop. The water used may range from fresh to brine in terms